Golf Course Management

JAN 2019

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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110 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 01.19 Albrecht M. Koppenhöfer, Ph.D. Olga S. Kostromytska, Ph.D. Shaohui Wu, Ph.D. Level of pyrethroid resistance affects efficacy of different insecticide classes on ABW Field research shows a correlation between pyrethroid resistance level in ABW populations and reduced efficacy of adulticides and larvicides from several insecticide classes. Widespread issues with insecticide resis- tance have made the annual bluegrass weevil (ABW), Listronotus maculicollis, one of the most difficult-to-manage turfgrass insect pests in North America (2, 4). Golf course super - intendents have relied on synthetic insecti- cides for ABW management, primarily using broad-spectrum adulticides, especially pyre - throids, to control overwintered adults before egg-laying starts in spring (4), the only time during the ABW life cycle when only a single life stage is present. With growing awareness of pyrethroid-resistance issues, many super - intendents have recently preferred to use the organophosphate chlorpyrifos (Chlorpyrifos, multiple manufacturers) for adult control. However, when used as adulticides, chlorpyri - fos, as well as indoxacarb (Provaunt, Syngenta) and spinosad (Conserve, DowAgroSciences), were found to be less toxic to adult ABW from pyrethroid-resistant populations in laboratory and greenhouse assays (2). ABW populations may also be managed with insecticides targeting the larvae. Young larvae initially feed inside the stems, causing moderate damage. Older larvae (fourth and fifth instars) cause severe damage by feeding externally on the grass crowns. e larvae can be targeted with systemic insecticides (di - amides, neonicotinoids) when small and with systemic (see above) and nonsystemic insecti - cides (spinosad, indoxacarb and the organo- phosphate trichlorfon [Dylox, Bayer]) when feeding externally (1). However, a summary of numerous field efficacy tests indicates sev - eral larvicides (indoxacarb, trichlorfon, the diamide chlorantraniliprole [Acelepryn, Syn - genta], and the neonicotinoid clothianidin [Arena, Nufarm]) may also be less effective against pyrethroid-resistant populations than against pyrethroid-susceptible populations (1). e limited number of field observations This research was funded in part by a grant to GCSAA from the Environmental Institute for Golf and by funding from USGA. Late stages of damage to golf course fairways in late spring. Photos by O. Kostromytska

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