Golf Course Management

JAN 2019

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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108 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 01.19 RESEARCH SAYS • Topical toxicity assay in the laboratory with technical-grade active ingredients and greenhouse tests with formulated products showed a wide range of pyrethroid resistance levels among adults of ABW populations. • Resistance ratios (RR 50 s) compared with the most susceptible populations were as high as 343 in laboratory tests and 503 in greenhouse tests. • Pyrethroid-resistant adults also showed elevated levels of tolerance to insecticides from several other classes, but their resis- tance levels to pyrethroids were greater. However, insects could avoid the chemicals or could be sheltered in the thatch, which could lead to either overestimating or underestimat - ing resistance levels. Because the conditions in our greenhouse assays were similar to typical field exposure, the greenhouse assay should be a reliable validation tool. e geographically widespread and often high degree of pyrethroid resistance and es - pecially the cross-resistance patterns observed in this study emphasize the need for rethink - ing ABW management. e limited num- ber of currently available and effective active ingredients, especially adulticides, suggests that heavy reliance on insecticides, particu - larly broadcast adulticide applications, is not sustainable. Moreover, the efficacy of several ABW larvicides is also reduced, although to a lesser degree (2). Alternative management strategies, such as cultural control and bio - logical control, need to be further explored and adapted to the high standards of the golf course environment. Funding is research was funded by GCSAA and supporting GCSAA chapters and associations (Connecticut AGCS, GCSA of New Jersey, Greater Pittsburgh GCSA, Hudson Valley GCSA, Long Island GCSA, Metropolitan GCSA, Mountain & Valley GCSA, New Jer - sey Turfgrass Association, Pocono Turfgrass Association), the USGA, the New York State Turfgrass Association, the O.J. Noer Research Foundation, the Tri-State Turf Research Foundation, the Rutgers Center for Turfgrass Science, and the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture Hatch Multistate proj - ects 0206130 through the New Jersey Agricul- tural Experiment Station, Hatch Multistate project NJ08295. Acknowledgments e authors also thank the participating golf course superintendents and their clubs for their cooperation. is article was based on a paper, "Cross- resistance patterns to insecticides of several chemical classes among Listronotus maculicollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) populations with different levels of resistance to pyrethroids," written by O.S. Kostromytska, S. Wu and A.M. KoppenhÖfer and published in 2018 in Journal of Economic Entomology (111:391-398). Literature cited 1. Koppenhöfer, A.M., S.R. Alm, R.S. Cowles, B.A. McGraw, S. Swier and P.J. Vittum. 2012. Controlling annual bluegrass weevil: optimal insecticide timing and rates. Golf Course Management 84(3):98-104. 2. Koppenhöfer, A.M., O.S. Kostromytska and S. Wu. 2018. Pyrethroid-resistance level affects perfor - mance of larvicides and adulticides from different insecticide classes in populations of Listronotus maculicollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 111:1851-1859. 3. McGraw, B.A., and A.M. Koppenhöfer. 2007. Biology and management of the annual bluegrass weevil, Listronotus maculicollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Pages 335-350. In: M. Pessarakli, ed. Handbook of Turfgrass Management and Physiology. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla. 4. McGraw, B.A., and A.M. Koppenhöfer. 2017. A survey of regional trends in annual bluegrass weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) management on golf courses in eastern North America. Journal of Inte - grated Pest Management 8:1-11. 5. Ramoutar, D., S.R. Alm and R.S. Cowles. 2009. Pyrethroid resistance in populations of Listronotus maculicollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) from south - ern New England golf courses. Journal of Economic Entomology 102:388-392. 6. Ramoutar, D., S.R. Alm and R.S. Cowles. 2009. Pyrethroid resistance mediated by enzyme detoxifica - tion in Listronotus maculicollis (Coleoptera: Cur- culionidae) from Connecticut. Journal of Economic Entomology 102:1203-1208. Olga S. Kostromytska is an Extension assistant profes - sor in the Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts. Shaohui Wu is a postdoctoral researcher in the Department of Entomology, University of Georgia, Tifton, Ga. Albrecht M. Koppenhöfer (a.koppenhofer@ is an Extension specialist in the Department of Entomology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N.J.

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