Golf Course Management

JAN 2019

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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01.19 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 101 A microapplicator was used to apply the active ingredients of insecticides in the topical bioassays. Photos by O. Kostromytska eastern Pennsylvania, southeastern New York and southwestern Connecticut during 2014 and 2015. Based on a preliminary petri dish test and consistently decreased pyrethroid effi - cacy as observed by the superintendents of the respective golf courses, the populations ap - peared to be highly susceptible to pyrethroids at three collection sites and tolerant of or re - sistant to pyrethroids at various levels at seven sites (see Table 1). Adults from the overwintering generation were collected from overwintering sites on golf courses around late October. For two to six months, they were kept in containers on moist sand in an incubator (10 hours light at 43 F [6 C]: 14 hours dark at 39 F [4 C]). Over wintered (collected around late April) and spring-generation (collected around early July) adults were collected from fairways or greens. Before being used in experiments, adults were kept in containers on moist sand in incubators (14 hours light at 72 F [22 C]: 10 hours dark at 57 F [14 C]) for at least one week and provided with cutworm diet and annual bluegrass (Poa annua) clippings as food. Technical-grade active ingredients (a.i.) (> 95% purity) of insecticides from six chemi- cal classes with different modes of action (Table 2) were dissolved in acetone to be used in topical and feeding assays. In the green - house trial, the formulated commercially available products Talstar Pro (a.i. bifenthrin, FMC), a pyrethroid, and Dursban 50W (a.i. chlorpyrifos, Dow AgroSciences), an organo - phospate, were used. ABW susceptibility in topical assays Topical bioassays with technical-grade active ingredients dissolved in acetone were conducted to determine adult susceptibility to the major insecticide classes used for ABW control. Two susceptible populations (HF, PB) and the seven resistant populations were tested. Based on preliminary testing, six con - centrations per active ingredient were selected for each population. Overwintering genera - tion adults were treated with 1 microliter pure acetone or insecticide solution applied dorsally to the intersegmental membrane between the prothorax and the elytra with a syringe con - nected to a microapplicator. Treated adults were placed in petri dishes (3.5 inches [9 cm] in diameter) lined with one moistened (1 mil - liliter tap water/dish) filter paper (10 weevils/ dish). Poa annua (three sprigs) was provided as food. Dishes were placed in an incubator Insecticide class Active ingredient (a.i.) Trade name Manufacturer % a.i. Label rate pound a.i./acre [grams a.i./hectare] Pyrethroid bifenthrin Talstar FMC 7.9 0.05-0.1 [61-112] λ-cyhalothrin Scimitar Syngenta Crop Protection 9.7 0.06 [69] Organophosphate chlorpyrifos Dursban Dow AgroSciences 50.0 1.0 [1121] Spinosyn spinosad Conserve Dow AgroSciences 11.6 0.4 [448] Oxadiazine indoxacarb Provaunt Syngenta Crop Protection 30.0 0.225 [252] Anthranilic diamide chlorantraniliprole Acelepryn Syngenta Crop Protection 18.4 0.16-0.26 [176-291] Neonicotinoid clothianidin Arena Valent 50.0 0.2-0.4 [224-448] † Rate for turfgrass use. Table 2. Insecticide active ingredients and products tested against annual bluegrass weevil (Listronotus maculicollis) adults. Insecticide active ingredients and products tested against ABW adults

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