Golf Course Management

JAN 2019

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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100 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 01.19 Olga S. Kostromytska, Ph.D. Shaohui Wu, Ph.D. Albrecht M. Koppenhöfer, Ph.D. Cross-resistance to insecticides among pyrethroid-resistant ABW populations Annual bluegrass weevil adults resistant to pyrethroids show resistance to or increased tolerance of insecticides from several other insecticide classes. e annual bluegrass weevil (ABW), Lis- tronotus maculicollis, is a serious and expand- ing pest of golf course turf in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic regions in the United States and in southeastern Canada. ABW larvae can cause severe damage to tees, fairways, collars and greens. ABW is one of the most difficult- to-manage turfgrass insect pests in North America because several generations are pres - ent in a single year, and multiple life stages are present concurrently (and with increasing asynchrony) during the growing season (3). Chemical control has been an important strategy in ABW management. In the 1980s, pyrethroids started to be widely used because they can effectively control ABW adults, thereby preventing oviposition and subse - quent damage. As a result of excessive pyre- throid use, many courses started to observe a decrease in the efficacy of this strategy by the 2000s. Resistance to pyrethroids was first reported from southern New England (5). In a recent survey of the area affected by ABW, insecticide-resistant ABW populations were thought to be present on 19% of participating golf courses across the area and, more region - ally, on up to 55% of courses on Long Island, N.Y. (4). e only adulticide available as an alterna - tive to pyrethroids is chlorpyrifos (Chlorpyri- fos, multiple manufacturers), an organophos- phate that is less effective than pyrethroids (1, 2) and is troublesome from a toxicological and environmental standpoint. All other alterna - tives are larvicides, including the diamides chlorantraniliprole (Acelepryn, Syngenta) and cyantraniliprole (Ference, Syngenta), the spinosyn spinosad (Conserve and Match - Point, Dow AgroSciences), the oxadiazine indoxacarb (Provaunt, Syngenta), and the organophosphate trichlorfon (Dylox, Bayer) (1). However, according to field studies, the efficacy of most insecticides against pyre - throid-resistant ABW populations seems to be reduced (1, 2). is is not surprising, as pyre - throid resistance in ABW seems to be, at least in part, due to enhanced enzymatic detoxifica - tion (6), a rather nonspecific mechanism that breaks down active ingredients before they can reach their target sites in the organism. Efforts continue in the development of more sustainable management practices, such as plant resistance, biological control and im - proved ABW monitoring. Meanwhile, care- ful measures need to be taken to prevent the development of resistance to new chemistries and to synthetic insecticides in new popula - tions, and to effectively manage already-re- sistant populations. Hence, the main goals of our study were to determine the degree and scope of ABW resistance, determine existing cross-resistance patterns, and confirm labora - tory observations under more realistic green- house conditions. Insects and insecticides Adult ABWs were collected from popula- tions at different golf courses in New Jersey, This research was funded in part by a grant to GCSAA from the Environmental Institute for Golf and by funding from USGA. Highly susceptible to pyrethroids Tolerant of/resistant to pyrethroids HF North Brunswick, N.J. CN Easton, Conn. HP Howell, N.J. EW River Vale, N.J. PB Manalapan, N.J. GB Somers Point, N.J. JC Cheltenham, Pa. LI Glen Cove, N.Y PF Edison, N.J. RW Paramus, N.J. Table 1. Sites where annual bluegrass weevils are either highly susceptible to or tolerant of or resistant to pyrethroids. Where ABW are susceptible to or tolerant of or resistant to pyrethroids

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