Golf Course Management

DEC 2018

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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12.18 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 73 RESEARCH SAYS • Compared to quick-release fertilizers, controlled-release fertilizers such as polymer-coated urea (PCU) may reduce emissions of N 2 O from turf by possibly reducing the amount of nitrogen in the soil that is available for denitrification. • In our study of Meyer zoysiagrass maintained as a fairway, N 2 O emissions were greatest in plots fertilized with urea, lower in plots treated with PCU and lowest in unfertilized (UF) plots. • Irrigation levels had no effect on N 2 O emissions in UF plots, but emissions were as low in PCU plots receiving low irrigation as they were in UF plots. • Both urea- and PCU-treated plots had higher visual turfgrass quality than UF plots, but visual quality was acceptable in all cases. destruction. ey could also conserve water and improve consistency of turf quality throughout the growing season. Additional research is required into, for example, nitro gen amounts, seasonal application timings, and differences between warm and cool sea son turfgrass species using controlled release fertilizers, combined with different irrigation timings and quantities surrounding nitrogen fertilization, to minimize nitrous oxide emis sions and maximize plant nutrient uptake. Overall, golf course superintendents could benefit from using controlled release fertilizers such as PCU rather than quick release fertil izers such as urea and from keeping irrigation to a minimum in order to reduce the amount of applied nitrogen lost to the environment, increase nitrogen availability to the turf, and conserve water. Funding is work was supported by the United States Golf Association (USGA) project 2013 21 482 and Kansas Turfgrass Foundation. Acknowledgments e authors thank Andrew McGowan, Eric Miltner, Pavithra Pitumpe Arachchige, Noortje Notenbaert, Kalli Morland, Jordon Webster and Cliff Dipman for assistance with this project. e full manuscript summariz ing how turfgrass systems contribute to the global greenhouse gas budget is available in Agronomy Journal ( agronj2018.02.0133 ), and the experiment on nitrous oxide emissions from turfgrass receiv ing different irrigation amounts and nitrogen fertilizer forms is available in Crop Science ( ). Literature cited 1. Bijoor, N.S., C.I. Czimczik, D.E. Pataki and S.A. Bill- ings. 2008. Effects of temperature and fertilization on nitrogen cycling and community composition of an urban lawn. Global Change Biology 14:2119-2131. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2008.01617.x 2. Braun, R.C., and D.J. Bremer. 2018a. Nitrous oxide emissions in turfgrass systems: A review. Agronomy Journal 110:1-11. doi:10.2134/agronj2018.02.0133 3. Braun, R.C., and D.J. Bremer. 2018b. Nitrous oxide emissions from turfgrass receiving different irrigation amounts and nitrogen fertilizer forms. Crop Science 58:1762-1775. doi:10.2135/cropsci2017.11.0688 4. Bremer, D.J. 2006. Nitrous oxide fluxes in turfgrass: effects of nitrogen fertilization rates and types. Journal of Environmental Quality 35:1678-1685. doi:10.2134.jeq2005.0387 5. Gillette, K.L., Y. Qian, R.F. Follett and S. Del Grosso. 2016. Nitrous oxide emissions from a golf course fairway and rough after application of different nitrogen fertilizers. Journal of Environmental Quality 45:1788-1795. 6. IPCC. 2007. Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmen - tal Panel on Climate Change. Core Writing Team, Pachauri, R.K., and A. Reisinger, eds. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, p. 104. 7. Kaye, J.P., I.C. Burke, A.R. Mosier and J.P. Guer - schman. 2004. Methane and nitrous oxide fluxes from urban soils to the atmosphere. Ecological Appli - cations 14:975-981. doi:10.1890/03-5115 8. Lewis, J.D., and D.J. Bremer. 2013. Different nitro - gen management regimes affect nitrous oxide emis- sions among one cool-season and two warm-season turfgrasses. International Turfgrass Society Research Journal 12:31-38. 9. Mosier, A.R., J.M. Duxbury, J.R. Freney, O. Heine - meyer and K. Minami. 1998. Assessing and mitigat- ing N 2 O emissions from agricultural soils. Climatic Change 40:7-38. doi:10.1023/A:1005386614431 10. Ravishankara, A.R., J.S. Daniel and R.W. Portmann. 2009. Nitrous oxide (N 2 O): The dominant ozone- depleting substance emitted in the 21st century. Science 326:123-125. doi:10.1126/science.1176985 11. Shoji, S., J. Delgado, A. Mosier and Y. Miura. 2001. Use of controlled-release fertilizers and nitrification inhibitors to increase nitrogen use efficiency and to conserve air and water quality. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 32(7-8):1051-1070. doi: 10.1081/CSS-100104103. 12. Smith, P., D. Martino, Z. Cai, D. Gwary, H. Janzen, P. Kumar, B. McCarl, S. Ogle, F. O'Mara, C. Rice, B. Scholes and O. Sirotenko. 2007. Agriculture. Pages 497-532. In: B. Metz et al., eds. Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergov - ernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., and New York. Ross C. Braun ( is a postdoctoral research assistant in the Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture at Purdue University, West Lafay - ette, Ind., and Dale J. Bremer is professor of turfgrass sci- ence, graduate program director in the Department of Hor- ticulture and Natural Resources at Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kan.

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