Golf Course Management

DEC 2018

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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72 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 12.18 9 8 7 6 5 2 1 Visual turf quality A. Fertilizer type Urea Polymer-coated urea Unfertilized a a a b a a a a a a a a a a a a b b b a a a a a a a a a a a a a b c b b b b b b b b b b b b b c 9 8 7 6 5 2 1 B. Irrigation level Medium irrigation Low irrigation 5/15 5/29 6/12 6/26 7/10 7/24 8/7 8/21 9/4 9/18 136 150 164 178 192 206 220 234 248 262 Date, Day of Year, 2016 a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b Figure 7. Effects of fertilizer type (A) and irrigation level (B) on visual turf quality of zoysiagrass in 2016. Solid vertical lines represent the summer period when the rainout shelter was activated and irrigation treatments were applied. Dashed vertical line at June 6 represents fertilization with urea at 1 pound nitrogen/1,000 square feet and polymer-coated urea at 2 pounds nitrogen/1,000 square feet. Dashed vertical line at July 20 represents the second urea application at 1 pound nitrogen/1,000 square feet. Dashed horizontal line represents a visual rating of 6, the minimum rating for acceptable turf quality. Within each main effect, means at each date with the same letter or no letters are not significantly different. Zoysiagrass visual turf quality, 2016 hectare/year) in this study is comparable to the average rate of 2.7 kilograms N 2 O N/ hectare/year reported from other turfgrass sys tems, which is similar to rates in agricultural soils (2). Our results indicate the use of a con trolled release fertilizer such as PCU should be encouraged because it significantly reduces nitrous oxide emissions in turfgrass compared to use of quick release fertilizer. Turf quality Both urea and controlled release nitrogen fertilizer treatments produced higher turfgrass quality than the unfertilized control. Surpris ingly, however, all treatments maintained ac ceptable turfgrass quality (≥ 6) in both years, including zoysiagrass receiving only low irri gation (33% ET o ) twice a week with all rain fall excluded for 92 days during the summer in Kansas in 2015 and 2016 (Figure 7). Even though the visual quality increased more slowly, PCU treated plots generally sustained higher visual quality than urea treated plots over a longer period during the summer (Fig ure 7). erefore, besides reducing nitrous oxide emissions, the controlled released PCU fertilizer produces more consistent turf qual ity over the summer compared to the quick release urea fertilizer. Take-home message e development and application of the smarter management practices presented in this article may reduce nitrous oxide emis sions from turfgrass systems and help miti gate climate change and atmospheric ozone

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