Golf Course Management

DEC 2018

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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12.18 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 63 RESEARCH SAYS • The bermudagrass mite causes significant damage to bermudagrass turf on golf courses, lawns, sports fields and other areas where it is grown around the world. • Little is known about the pest, its origins, how it damages turf and how that damage can be prevented. • Scientists are currently searching for resis- tant bermudagrass cultivars, biological controls and cultural and mechanical and biological controls to prevent and reduce the damage that the bermudagrass mite causes. overwinter? When does the mite emerge from overwintering and begin to cause damage? Knowing how the bermuda grass mite over winters will give us information that can help us develop the most appropriate management tool. For example, if the bermudagrass mite overwinters in the leaf sheaths, scalping and discarding dormant bermuda grass turf may remove much of the population. is method will not work if the bermudagrass mite over winters on underground stolons. e second step is to better understand how moisture stress, nitrogen fertilization and mowing height and frequency contribute to damage severity. Information gathered from these experiments will be used to identify and evaluate various combinations of management practices that reduce damage or promote re covery. For example, does a combination of fertilization and insecticide treatment pro mote recovery of healthy turf after scalping? We are hopeful that a large amount of in formation about the bermudagrass mite will be gathered in the coming years. We antici pate that our efforts and the development of new management guidelines can help us move the bermudagrass mite from the "few solu tions" category to the "effectively controlled" category. Funding Research gifts from Syngenta supported the insecticide efficacy evaluations, and Clem son University Pee Dee Research and Edu cation Center Endowment for Graduate Re search Support funded the work by Matthew Brown. Literature cited 1. Boeri, P.A., N.D. Benda, J.B. Unruh and A. Dale. 2018. Biology and management of the bermudagrass mite, Eriophyes cynodoniensis. Publication # ENY- 342. University of Florida, IFAS Extension. ( https:// edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in1217 ) 2. Chong, J.H. 2013. A witch's brew of troubles with the bermudagrass mite. USGA Green Section Record 51:14 (July 12, 2103). ( http://gsrpdf.lib.msu.edu/ ticpdf.py?file=/article/chong-witch-7-12-13.pdf ) 3. Hudson, W.G., and J.A. Reinert. 2012. Eriophyid mite pests (bermudagrass, zoysiagrass, buffalograss, grain rust and St. Augustinegrass). Pages 30-33. In: R.L. Brandenburg and C.P. Freeman, eds. Handbook of Turfgrass Insects, Second edition. The Entomologi - cal Society of America, Lanham, Md. 4. Jeppson, L.R., H. Keifer, and E.W. Baker. 1975. Mites Injurious to Economic Plants. University of California Press, Berkeley. 5. Johnson, F.A. 1975. The bermudagrass mite, Eri - ophyes cynodoniensis (Sayed) (Acari: Eriophyidae) in Florida with reference to its injury, symptomology, ecology, and integrated control. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Florida, Gainesville. 6. Lindquist, E.E. 1996. External anatomy and notation of structures. Pages 3-32. In: E.E. Lindquist, M.W. Sabelis and J. Bruin, eds. Eriophyoid Mites: Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Elsevier Sci - ence B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 7. Loch, D.S., O.D. Seeman, D.K. Knihinicki and P.E. McMaugh. 2017. Distribution, field recognition and implications of phytophagous mite species on Cynodon spp. (Bermudagrass) and Pennisetum clandestinum (Kikuyugrass) in Australia. International Turfgrass Society Research Journal 13:502-511. 8. McMaugh, P., and D.S. Loch. 2015. Screening chemicals for control of eriophyid mites in four warm season turf grasses. Horticultural Innovation Australia Ltd., Sydney, NSW. 9. McMaugh, P.E., D.K. Knihinicki, O.D. Seeman and D.S. Loch. 2016. Preliminary assessment of mite infestations on warm-season turfgrasses in Australia. Acta Horticulturae 1122:55-64. 10. Reinert, J.A. 1982. The bermudagrass stunt mite. USGA Green Section Record 20:9-12. 11. Reinert, J.A., C.M. Taliaferro and J.A. McAfee. 2008. Susceptibility of bermudagrass (Cynodon ) varieties to bermudagrass mite (Eriophyes cynodoniensis ). Acta Horticulturae 783:519-528. 12. Tuttle, D.M., and G.D. Butler Jr. 1961. A new eri - ophyid mite infesting Bermuda grass. Journal of Economic Entomology 54:836-838. Juang Horng "JC" Chong (juanghc@clemson.edu) is an associate professor of turf and ornamentals entomology, and Matthew Brown is a graduate research assistant in entomology, in the Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences at Clemson University, Clemson, S.C.

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