Golf Course Management

NOV 2018

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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68 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 11.18 management program. Golf Course Management 59(9):46-60. 3. Calhoun, R.N. 2010. Growing degree-days as a method to characterize germination, flower pattern, and chemical flower suppression of a mature annual bluegrass [Poa annua var. reptans (Hauskins) Timm] fairway in Michigan. Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, East Lansing. 4. Frank, K.W. 2014 Turfgrass winterkill observations from the Great Lakes region. Applied Turfgrass Sci - ence doi:10.2134/ATS-2014-0057-BR 5. Koshy, T.K. 1969. Breeding systems in annual blue - grass, Poa annua L. Crop Science 9:40-43. 6. Lettner, R.G. 1988. Geotextiles can enhance spring green-up of fine bentgrass greens. Golf Course Man - agement 56(12):28-33. 7. Miltner, E.D., G.K. Stahnke, G.J. Rinehart and P.A. Backman. 2005. Seeding of creeping bluegrass into existing golf course putting greens. HortScience 40:457-459. 8. Minner, D.D., D. Li and F. Valverde. 2001. The effect of winter covers on autumn established Kentucky bluegrass. Iowa Turfgrass Research Report 94-97. 9. Murphy, J.A., H. Samaranayake, T.J. Lawson, J.A. Honig and S. Hart. 2005. Seeding date and cultivar impact on establishment of bentgrass in soil contain - ing annual bluegrass seed. International Turfgrass Society Research Journal 10:410-415. 10. Patton, A.J., J.M. Trappe and M.D. Richardson. Effect of covers on % turfgrass cover, 2008 Cover No cover May 29 Jun 12 Jun 26 Jul 10 Jul 24 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 % turfgrass cover * * * Figure 1. After creeping bentgrass seedling emergence in 2008, the effect of protective covers on % turfgrass cover was examined by comparing plots that were not covered with plots that were covered with clear polyethylene covers from late evening until 8 a.m. An asterisk indicates that the treatment plots with a polyethylene cover had a significantly higher percentage of turfgrass cover than the plots without a cover. No significant differences were seen in July. 2010. Cover technology influences warm-season grass establishment from seed. HortTechnology 20(1):153-159. 11. Rossi, F.S. 1997. Physiology of turfgrass freezing stress injury. Turfgrass Trends 6(2):1-8. 12. Skorulski, J. 2002. The greatest challenge. USGA Green Section Record 40(5):1-6. 13. Snow, J.T. 1979. Promoting recovery from winter injury. USGA Green Section Record 17(1):11-13. 14. Tompkins, D.K., J.B. Ross and D.L. Moroz. 2004. Effects of ice cover on annual bluegrass and creeping bentgrass putting greens. Crop Science 44:2175-2179. 15. Toole, V.K., and E.J. Koch. 1977. Light and tem- perature controls of dormancy and germination in bentgrass seeds. Crop Science 17:806-811. 16. Vavrek, B. 2005. Slow recovery. USGA Turf Management Regional Updates. web/20070807234015/ regional_updates/regional_reports/northcentral/ 05-16-2005.html (accessed April 1, 2016). Kevin W. Frank ( is an associate profes - sor and Extension turf specialist, and Joe Vargas Jr. is a professor in the Department of Plant, Soil and Microbial Sciences at Michigan State University, East Lansing, Mich. Erica Bogle was a graduate research assistant, and Jeff Bryan was a research technician at Michigan State and participated in this research project. RESEARCH SAYS • We evaluated the effects of fertilizer program, protective cover, and seeding creeping bentgrass or annual bluegrass on putting green re-establishment following simulated winterkill. • The effort to establish annual bluegrass using collected florets was relatively ineffective, with just over 50% of the plot area established at six and 10 weeks after emergence in 2007 and 2008, respec- tively. • The creeping bentgrass cultivars tested showed essentially no difference in es- tablishment rate, but our results suggest that warmer temperatures in 2007 had a greater influence on speed to early estab- lishment than an earlier seeding date. • The two fertilizer treatments produced few differences, and those differences were small. On each date, the starter fertilizer program had the highest percent turfgrass cover. • On three dates in 2008, the polyethylene cover treatment had higher percent turf- grass cover than the uncovered treatment, but the mean difference was only 5%.

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