Golf Course Management

NOV 2018

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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Page 68 of 99

11.18 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 67 Effect of species and cultivar on % turf cover Our results indicate that the three creep- ing bentgrass cultivars that we tested showed essentially no difference in establishment rate following a simulated winterkill event. Our effort to establish annual bluegrass using col - lected florets was relatively ineffective, with just over 50% of the plot area established at six weeks after emergence in 2007 and at 10 weeks after emergence in 2008. Effects of temperature Creeping bentgrass showed large differ - ences in percent turfgrass cover at two and four weeks after emergence between 2007 and 2008. At two weeks after emergence, the creeping bentgrass cultivars had a mean percent cover of 59% in 2007 and 11% in 2008. e difference in percent cover was likely caused by temperature differences fol - lowing seedling emergence. e mean high air temperature in the first two weeks after emergence was 73 F (23 C) in 2007 and 64 F (18 C) in 2008. e mean soil temperature at the 2-inch (51 mm) depth in the first two weeks after emergence was 61 F (16 C) in 2007 and 57 F (14 C) in 2008. Since the seed was broadcast and incorporated to a shallow depth of 0.5 inch (12.7 mm), air temperatures had a greater effect on establishment than soil temperatures. Our results indicate the date of seeding is less important than the temperatures follow - ing seedling emergence. In 2007, the creep- ing bentgrass seeding date was April 21, with emergence on May 10, an interval of 19 days. In 2008, the creeping bentgrass seeding date was May 2, with emergence on May 14, an interval of 12 days. Although the seeding date was earlier in 2007, days to emergence took longer than in 2008, and our results sug - gest that warmer temperatures in 2007 had a greater influence on speed to early establish - ment than an earlier seeding date. Effects of fertilizer program roughout the research, fertilizer treat - ments produced few differences. ere were differences in percent turfgrass cover on only two dates in 2007, four and five weeks after emergence (data not presented). On each date, the starter fertilizer program had the highest percent turfgrass cover. However, the numeri - cal difference in percent turfgrass cover be- tween the two programs was small. At four weeks after emergence, percent turfgrass cover was 48% for the urea fertilizer program and 50% for the starter program. At five weeks after emergence, percent turfgrass cover was 62% for the urea program and 68% for the starter fertilizer program. Cover effects Cover treatment had no significant ef - fects on percent turfgrass cover in 2007, but there were significant cover treatment effects in 2008 on three dates (Figure 1). From two through six weeks after emergence in 2008, the polyethylene cover treatment had higher percent turfgrass cover than the uncovered treatment. Although there were significant differences, the mean difference in percent cover between the polyethylene cover and no cover treatment was small: 5%. e polyeth - ylene cover treatment was used on 19 days in May 2007 and 27 days in May 2008. e dif - ference in night air temperatures between the two years resulted in small but significant dif - ferences between cover treatments from two through six weeks after emergence in 2008. Leaving covers in place during the day may have increased temperatures under the cover and possibly decreased the time for establish - ment, but leaving a clear polyethylene cover in place during the day may elevate temper - atures to the level that turf establishment is reduced either by disease or by smothering (13, 16). Further research on cover types and duration of cover is necessary to improve our understanding of how covers may be used to enhance establishment following winterkill. Acknowledgments e authors express thanks to the Golf Course Superintendents Association of Amer - ica, the Environmental Institute for Golf, the Michigan Turfgrass Foundation, Michigan State University Project GREEEN and the Northern Great Lakes Golf Course Superin - tendents Association for funding. Literature cited 1. Beard, J.B., and H.J. Beard. 2005. Beard's Turfgrass Encyclopedia for Golf Courses, Grounds, Lawns, Sports Fields. Michigan State University Press, East Lansing, Mich. 2. Branham, B.E. 1991. Dealing with Poa annua : Under - standing the strength and weaknesses of annual bluegrass is the first step in developing a successful Turfgrass species/cultivar Weeks after emergence in 2007 2 4 6 8 10 % turfgrass cover Alpha 55 b † 57 b 74 a 80 a 83 a Penn A-4 62 a 60 ab 73 a 78 a 81 a Providence 60 ab 65 a 75 a 81 a 83 a Annual bluegrass 23 c 32 c 57 b 60 b 63 b LSD 6 7 6 7 5 Weeks after emergence in 2008 2 4 6 8 10 % turfgrass cover Alpha 12 a 23 a 64 a 70 a 91 a Penn A-4 10 a 23 a 63 a 78 a 93 a Providence 11 a 23 a 61 a 73 a 94 a Annual bluegrass 2 b 7 b 14 b 19 b 57 b LSD 2 4 8 9 6 † Within a column, means followed by the same letter are not significantly different. Table 1. Effect of turfgrass species and creeping bentgrass cultivar treatment on percent turfgrass cover in 2007 and 2008.

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