Golf Course Management

NOV 2018

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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Page 65 of 99

64 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 11.18 Kevin W. Frank, Ph.D. Erica Bogle Jeff Bryan Joe Vargas Jr., Ph.D. Techniques for turfgrass re-establishment following winterkill Quickly replacing damaged or dead turf on annual bluegrass or creeping bentgrass greens affected by winterkill is a serious problem in the northern United States. Annual bluegrass greens are often severely damaged by winterkill in the northern United States, and replacing the turf in a timely manner may be difficult. Photos by Kevin Frank Winterkill is a general term that is used to define turf loss during the winter (1). Winter - kill can be caused by a combination of factors, including crown hydration, desiccation, low- temperature kill, ice sheets and snow mold. Because environmental factors are unpredict - able, and other factors such as surface drain- age are variable, the occurrence of winterkill can vary greatly between golf courses and even across the same golf course. In general, annual bluegrass (Poa annua) greens and fairways are the most susceptible to crown hydration injury and anoxia injury from ice sheet cover. Potential for crown hy - dration injury exists when a day or two of warm daytime temperatures in late winter is followed by a rapid freeze. e freezing tem - peratures cause water to move out of the cells into the extracellular area, where it freezes. It is believed that cell dehydration, not ice formation, in the extracellular area kills the crown (11, 12). Sporadic crown hydration in - jury on annual bluegrass occurs almost every year somewhere in the northern United States. This research was funded in part by a grant to GCSAA from the Environmental Institute for Golf.

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