Golf Course Management

SEP 2018

Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success.

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76 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 09.18 RESEARCH SAYS • Common bermudagrass produces vari- ous levels of outcrossed seed because of self-incompatibility, which means that many bermudagrass populations are composed of natural hybrids. Plant breeders extend the breeding process to further improve these natural crosses. • Some breeding programs develop supe- rior hybrids from thousands of crosses, which are propagated vegetatively and sold as sod or sprigs. • Programs that develop and select self- incompatible genotypes produce hybrid seed from two or more parents; seed is harvested from fields planted with the same parental combination each year to maintain the original hybrid. • Triploid interspecific hybrids are consid- ered higher-quality bermudagrass turf, whereas hybrids of common bermu- dagrass have the potential to produce seed and have deep rhizomes, which are difficult to eradicate. • In general, consumers looking for turf for golf courses, lawns, landscaping and sports turf should look for improved triploid interspecific hybrids. Polyploidy and interspecific hybridization in Cynodon, Paspalum, Pennisetum, and Zoysia. Pages 318-338. In: A.S. Mason, ed. Polyploidy and Hybridization for Crop Improvement. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla. doi: 10.1201/9781315369259-13 3. Hanna, W., P. Raymer and B. Schwartz. 2013. Warm-season grasses: biology and breeding. Pages 54-590. In: J. Stier, B. Horgan and S. Bonos eds. Turfgrass: Biology, Use, and Management. Agronomy Monograph No. 56. ASA, CSSA and SSSA, Madison, Wis. 4. Taliaferro, C.M. 2003. Bermudagrass. Pages 235- 256. In: M.D. Casler and R.R. Duncan, eds. Turfgrass Biology, Genetics and Breeding. John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, N.J. Wayne W. Hanna (whanna@uga.edu) is a professor, and Brian M. Schwartz is an associate professor in crop and soil sciences at the Institute of Plant Breeding, Genetics and Genomics at the University of Georgia campus in Tif - ton, Ga. Figure 8. The best means of distinguishing between a hybrid bermudagrass and an interspecific hybrid is to count the chromosomes. This task is best carried out by the developer of the cultivar. Triploid interspecific hybrids usually have 2n = 27 chromosomes (shown above), and common hybrids usually have 2n = 36 chromosomes. Figure 7. Four of the bermudagrasses produced by the University of Georgia from 1943 through 1998 (from left): Coastal, a hybrid forage cultivar, was intro- duced in 1942; Tiflawn, a 36-chromosome vegeta- tively propagated hybrid suitable for sports fields and playgrounds, was introduced in 1952; TifGrand, the first sterile and shade-tolerant (up to 50% shade) triploid interspecific hybrid bermudagrass, was introduced in 2009; and TifEagle, a triploid interspecific hybrid devel - oped for golf course use, was introduced in 1997.

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